The objective of this research was to examine the effect of the addition of Indigofera zollingeriana leaf meal (IZLM) in diets on milk production and fermentation products of adaptive Saanen goat. The research was conducted at Balai Besar Pembibitan Ternak Unggul dan Hijauan Pakan Ternak (BBPTUHPT) or or the Center for Superior Animal Breeding and Forage Animal Feed, Baturraden, Central Java. A total of 18 first lactating adaptive Saanen goats with a body weight of 34.83±7.13 and aged 20-24 months were used in this study. The goats were kept in individual pens and grouped into 6 groups based on body weight and each group were randomized to receive three kinds of concentrate substitution with IZLM of 0%, 10% and 20 % of dry matter (DM) concentrates, for A, B and C treatments, respectively. Therefore, this research was designed according to randomized block design. Dry matter intake (DMI) of each goat was 4.5% of live weight with dry matter (DM) ratio of forage and concentrate were 60:40. The variables measured were DMI, partial volatile fatty acid (VFA), energy conversion efficiency of glucose into VFA (ECEVFA), methane gas, total protozoa, milk production and the first estrus after kidding. Analysis of variance showed that the treatment had a significant effect (P <0.05) on propionate, milk production and fat, but no significant effect (P> 0.05) on consumption of DM, acetate, butyrate, EKVFA, methane gas, lactose and protein milk. Increasing the IZLM substitution level enhanced linearly (P<0.05) on production of milk and milk fat, while the propionate concentrate responded to quadratic (P<0.05). Milk production increased at IZLM level of 20%, while goat in this group resulted only 16.70% estrous after birth compared to goat group received 10% IZLM level resulting 50% of estrus goat. The results of this study concluded that the recommended level of using IZLM as a concentrate substitute was only 10%.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published before or is under consideration for publication elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract). When the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.
Abdullah, L, DA Astuti and Suharlina. 2016. Potpourri of Research and Development Results Indigofera zollingeriana. IPB Press Taman Kencana Bogor.
Albaaj, A, G Foucras and D Raboisson. 2017. Changes in milk urea around insemination are negatively associated with conception success in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 100: 3257–3265.
Alagbe, JO and Oluwafemi. 2019. Hematology and Serum Biochemical Indices of Growing Rabbits Fed DietSupplemented with Different Level of Indigofera Zollingeriana Leaf Meal. Prog. Chem. Biochem. Res. Vol.2 (4): 170 -177
AOAC. 2019. Official methods of analysis. 21st editi. USA: AOAC International.
Arvind, K, VB Chaturvedi, AK Singh, Anamika and S Kerketta. 2018. Effect of different levels of lucerne (Medigo sativa) in diet on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism of ewes. Indian Journal of Small Ruminants. Vol. 24 (1): 51 -56
Aschenbach, JR, NB Kristensen, SS Donkin, HM Hammon and GB Penner. 2010. Gluconeogenesis in dairy cows: the secret of making sweet milk from sour dough. IUBMB Life 62(12):869-877.
Cheng, Z, CF Oguejiofor, T Swangchan-Uthai, S Carr and DC Wathes. 2015. Relationships between Circulating Urea Concentrations and Endometrial Function in Postpartum Dairy Cows. Anim an open access J from MDPI. 5: 748-773.
D'agosto, M and PMM Guedes. 2000. Caracterização das populações de ciliados (Protista, Ciliophora) do rúmen de bovinos de corte no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoociências, v.2,p.81-90
DITJEN Industri Agro and Kimia. 2009. Road Map Milk Industry. Ministry of Industry of the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta.
Dong, HB, LL Sun, RH Cong, SY Tao, YQ DuanMu, J Tian, YD Ni and RQ Zhao. 2017. Changes in milk performance and hepatic metabolism inmid-lactating dairy goats after being fed a high concentrate dietfor 10 weeks. Animal,11:3, pp 418–425
Elrod, CC and WR Butler. 1993. Reduction of Fertility and Alteration of Uterine pH in Heifers Fed Excess Ruminally Degradable Protein. J. Anim. Sci. 1993. 71:694-701
Fox, PF, T Uniacke-Lowe, PLH McSweeney and JA O'Mahoni. 2015. Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry, Springer International Publishing, Basel, Switzerland
Getachew, G, PH Robinson, EJ DePeters and SJ Taylor. 2004. Relationships between chemical composition, dry matter degradation and in vitro gas production of several ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 111 (1-4): 41-56
Ginting, SP. 2012. Kualitas nutrisi and pemanfaatan genus Indigofera sebagai feed ternak ruminansia. IAARD Press. Jakarta.
Guan, LL, JD Nkrumah, JA Basarab and SS Moore. 2008. Linkage of microbial ecology to phenotype: Correlation of rumen microbial ecology to cattle’s feed efficiency. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 288(1):85–91.
Herdiawan, I and R Krisnan. 2014. Produktivitas dan Pemanfaatan Tanaman Leguminosa Pohon Indigofera zollingeriana pada Lahan Kering. Wartazoa, 24 (2) : 75-82
Hu, WL, YM Wu, JX Liu, YQ Guo and J Ye. 2005. Tea saponins affect in vitro fermentation and methanogenesis in faunated and defaunated rumen fluid. J Zhejiang Univ SCI. 6B(8):787-792
Izquierdo, AC, AEI Reyes, GR Lang, JS Oaxaca, JEG Liera, EAV Mancera, MLJ Mosqueda, AG Vázquez, PS Aparicio, CJB Cedeño, JO Pérez, and RS Sánchez. 2021. Nutrition and Food in the Reproduction of Cattle. European Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. Vol.3 : 21 – 33.
Jorritsma, R, T Wensing, TAM Kruip, PLAM and JPM Noordhuizen. 2003. Metabolic changes in early lactation and impaired reproductive performance in dairy cows. Vet. Res. 34, 11–26
Kleiber, M. 1975. The Fire of Life. R.E. Krieger Publishing C., Huntington, New York, USA
Laryska, N and T Nurhajati. 2013. Improvement of dairy milk fat content with feeding of commercial concentrate feed compared to tofu waste. Agroveteriner. 1(2), Juni 2013.
Leketa, K, EF Donkin, A Hassen and AM Akanmu. 2019. Effect of Leucaena leucocephala, as a protein source in a total mixed ration, on milk yield and composition of Saanen milk goats. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. vol. 49 (2) 301- 309
Macrae, AI, E Burrough, J Forrest, A Corbishley, G Russell and DJ Shaw. 2019. Prevalence of excessive negative energy balance in commercial united kingdom dairy herds. Vet. J. , 248: 51–57.
Moore, SM and TJ DeVries. 2020. Effect of diet-induced negative energy balance on the feeding behavior of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 103: 7288–7301
Moss, AR, JP Jouany and J Newbold. 2000. Methane production by ruminants: its contribution to global warming. Annales de Zootechnie, 49: 231-253
Norton, BW. 1994. The nutritive value of tree legumes. In : R.C. Gutridge and H. M. Q Shelton (Eds). Forege tree legumes in tropical agriculture. CAB International.pp. 177-191
Ogimoto, K and S Imai. 1981. Atlas of rumen microbiology, Japan Scientific Societies Press. 231p. Tokyo
Osorio, JS, J Lohakare and M Bionaz. 2016. Biosynthesis of milk fat, protein, and lactose: Roles of transcriptional and posttran-scriptional regulation. Physiol. Genomics 48:231–256. https: / / doi .org/ 10 .1152/ physiolgenomics .00016 .2
Oguejiofor CF, T Swangchan-Uthai, S Carr and DC Wathes. 2015. Relationships between Circulating Urea Concentrations and Endometrial Function in Postpartum Dairy Cows. Animal open access J from MDPI 5: 748-773
Rapetti, L, G Galassi, AR Graziosi, GM Crovetto and S Colombini. 2020. The Effects of Substituting Dietary Soybean Meal with Maize Grain on Milk Production in Dairy Goats. Animals, 10, 299
Rounds, W and DB Herd. 2012. The Cow’s Digestive System. Texas A&M University – Department of Animal Science.
Ryle, M and ER Ørskov. 1990. Energy Nutrition in Ruminants. Springer, Dordrecht.
Roy, B, B Brahma, S Ghos, PK Pankaj and G Mandal. 2011. Evaluation milk urea concentration as useful indicator for dairy herd management: A Review. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 6(1): 6-19
Seradj, AR, L Abecia, J Crespo, D Villalba, M Fondevila and J Balcells. 2014. The effect of Bioflavex and its pure flavonoid components on in vitro fermentation parameters and methane production in rumen fluid from steers given high concentrate diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 197: 85-91
Seradj, AR, A Gimeno, M Fondevila, J Crespo, R Armengol and J Balcells. 2016. Effects of the citrus flavonoid extract Bioflavex or its pure components on rumen fermentation of intensively reared beef steers. Animal Production Science 58 (3): 553-560
Sodiq, A, S Adjisoedarmo and ES Tawfik. 2003. Reproduction rate of Kacang and Peranakan Etawah goats under village production system in Indonesia.International Research on Food Security, Natural Resources Management and Rural Development, 8(10), 1-7.
Soedjana, TJ. 1993. Economic of Raising Small Ruminants in the Humid Tropics (Monica et al., Editors). UNS-Press. pp.336-368.
Sudarman, A and T Ito. 2000. Heat producton and thermoregulatory responses of sheep fed different roughage proportion diets and intake levels when exposed to a high ambient temperature. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 13 (15): 625 -629
Suharlina, DA Astuti, Nahrowi, A Jayanegara and L Abdullah, 2016. Nutritional Evaluation of Dairy Goat Rations Containing Indigofera zollingeriana by Using in vitro Rumen Fermentation Technique (RUSITEC). International Journal of Dairy Science, 11: 100-105.
Steel, RGD, and JH Torrie. 1991. Prinsip dan Prosedur Statistika Suatu Pendekatan Biometrik. (B. Sumantri, editor.). PT. Gramedia, Jakarta.
Syamsi, AN, TY Astuti, P Soediarto. 2018. Volatile fatty acids and methane profile of dairy cattle ruminal fluid was gived legumes in ration based on synchronization protein-energy index. Buletin Peternakan, 42(4): 283-289.
Thai Agricultural Standard, TAS 6006. 2008. Raw Goat Milk. National Bureau of Agricultural Commodity and Food Standards Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Published in the Royal Gazette Vol. 125 Section 139 D.
Takma, C, Y Akbas and T Turgay. 2009. Modelling lactation curver of Turkish saanen and bornova goats. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 4 (3): 122-129.
Tarigan, A, SP Ginting, DA Astuti, L Abdullah. 2017. Physical Quality and Digestibility In vitro Determination of Green Concentrate on Indigofera zollingeriana Zollingeriana, IPB.
Tscerning, K, E Barrios, C Lascano, M Peters and R Schultze-Kraft. 2005. Effect of sample post haervest treatment on aerobic decomposition anaerobic in-vitro digestion on tropical legumes with contrasting quality. Plant and Soil 269:159-170.
Ungerfeld, EM. 2020. Metabolic Hydrogen Flows in Rumen Fermentation: Principles and Possibilities of Interventions. Front. Microbiol. 11:589.
Urritia, NL and KJ Harvatine. 2017. Acetate Dose-Dependently Stimulates Milk Fat Synthesis. J Nutr. 147:763–9.
Wang, C, Q Liu, G Guo, WJ Huo, L Ma, YL Zhang and H Wang. 2016. Effects of rumen-protected folic acid on ruminal fermentation, microbial enzyme activity, cellulolytic bacteria and urinary excretion of purine derivatives in growing beef steers. Anim Feed Sci. Tech. 221, 185–194.
Wattiaux, MA and LE Armentano. 2014. Chapter 3: Carbohydrate Metabolism in Dairy Cows. In: Nutrition and Feeding. p:9-12. The Babcock Institute. http://babcock.wisc.edu/node/134. Diakses tanggal 4 Nopember 2021
Zain, WNH. 2013. The quality of fresh goat's milk at the Umban Sari and Alam Raya Pekanbaru. Jurnal peternakan vol 10 (1):24-30
Zang, L, J Chung, Q Jiang, R Sun, J Zhang, Y Zhong and N Ren. 2017. Characteristics of rumen microorganisms involved in anaerobic degradation of cellulose at various pH values. RSCAdv. 7: 40303–40310