The Effect of Fermented Aflatoxins Contaminated Feed on Digestibility and Performance of Broiler Chickens

  • Isabelle Beatrice Mukandungutse 1Department of Animal Science, Egerton University, P O Box 536 - 20115, Egerton, Kenya
  • James K Tuitoek Department of Animal Science, Egerton University, P O Box 536 - 20115, Egerton, Kenya
  • Anthony M King’ori 1Department of Animal Science, Egerton University, P O Box 536 - 20115, Egerton, Kenya
  • Meshack A Obonyo 2Department of Biochemistry& Molecular Biology, Egerton University, P O Box 536 - 20115, Egerton, Kenya
Keywords: aflatoxins, Broiler chickens, Fermentations, Mycotoxins, Poultry

Abstract

Poultry is susceptible to mycotoxicoses caused by aflatoxins. Two experiments were carried out, where twenty-four, 28days old and 144 one-day-old broilers were assigned to six diets respectively. The diets were: diet1 (no aflatoxin and not fermented), diet2 (no aflatoxin and fermented without yeast), diet3 (no aflatoxin and fermented with yeast), diet4 (contained aflatoxin and not fermented), diet5 (contained aflatoxin and fermented without yeast) and diet6 (contained aflatoxin fermented with yeast). The aflatoxins were 20.034 and 30.08ppb for the first and second experiments respectively. In the first experiment, each diet was assigned to 4 chickens for 7days adaptation and 7days for feces and leftover collection. The feces were oven dried for the determination of dry matter digestibility (DMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and nitrogen (MN). In the second experiment, each diet was assigned to six chicks, replicated 4 times for 21days. Leftovers and mortalities were recorded daily and chicks were weighed on a weekly basis. The results showed that DMD and MN were significantly (p<0.05) affected by fermentation. Natural fermentation improved DMD of the clean and contaminated diets. No difference found in feed intake and body weight gain. However, gain: feed ratio was significantly (p=0.048) better in broilers fed diets fermented naturally. The mortality rate was 75.0% in chicks fed on aflatoxin diet which was not fermented. Therefore, natural fermentation is the best method of improving the quality of aflatoxin contaminated feed for broilers.

References

Abbasi F, J Liu, H Zhang, X Shen, and X Luo. 2018. Effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility, serum hormones levels and gene expression of Na+, K+-ATPase in ducklings. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 31(1):91-97.

Ali Rajput S, L Sun, N Zhang, MM Khalil, X Gao, Z Ling, L Zhu, F Khan, J Zhang, and D Qi. 2017. Ameliorative effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on growth performance, immune function, antioxidant capacity, biochemical constituents, liver histopathology and aflatoxin residues in broilers exposed to aflatoxin B1. Toxins. 9(11):371.

Aljuobori A, Z Idrus, SF Abdoreza, A Norhani, JB Liang and EA Awad. 2014. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 13(2):410-414.

Broom L. 2015. Mycotoxins and the intestine. Animal Nutrition. 1(4): 262-265.

Çabuk B, MG Nosworthy, AK Stone, DR Korber, T Tanaka, JD House and MT Nickerson. 2018. Effect of fermentation on the protein digestibility and levels of non-nutritive compounds of pea protein concentrate. Food technology and biotechnology. 56(2): 257-264.

Chen X, R Murdoch, Q Zhang, DJ Shafer and TJ Applegate. 2016. Effects of dietary protein concentration on performance and nutrient digestibility in Pekin ducks during aflatoxicosis. Poultry Science. 95(4):834-841.

Chen X, K Naehrer and TJ Applegate. 2016. Interactive effects of dietary protein concentration and aflatoxin B1 on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks. Poultry science. 95(6):1312-1325.

Da Silva DCF, AMV de Arruda and AA Gonçalves. 2017. Quality characteristics of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system for the consumers. Food science and technology. 54(7):1818-1826.

Fouad, AM, D Ruan, HK El-Senousey, W Chen, S Jiang and C Zheng. 2019. Harmful Effects and Control Strategies of Aflatoxin B1 Produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus Strains on Poultry. Toxins. 11(3):1-21.

Han XY, QC Huang, WF Li, JF Jiang and ZR Xu. 2008. Changes in growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and nutrient digestibility of cherry valley ducks in response to aflatoxin B1 levels. Livestock Science. 119(1-3): 216-220.

Hussain Z, MZ Khan, A Khan, I Javed, MK Saleemi, S Mahmood and MR Asi. 2010. Residues of aflatoxin B1 in broiler meat: Effect of age and dietary aflatoxin B1 levels. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 48(12):3304-3307.

Jawad HS, IH Lokman, SA Naji, ABZ Zuki and AB Kassim. 2016. Effects of dietary supplementation of wet fermented feed with probiotic on the production performance of Akar Putra chicken. Asian Journal of Poultry Science. 10(2): 72-77.

Kajuna FF, BA Temba and RD Mosha. 2013. Surveillance of aflatoxin B1contamination in chicken commercial feeds in Morogoro, Tanzania. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 25(3):51.

Kanyi KJ. 2018. Continental climate changes on the occurrence of aflatoxin producing Aspergillus species: Review. Austin Journal of Microbiology. 4(1):1-4.

Kim CH and HK Kang. 2016. Effects of fermented barley or wheat as feed supplement on growth performance, gut health and meat quality of broilers. European Poultry Science. 80(2016):1-11.

Kralik G, Z Kralik. M Grčević and D Hanžek. 2018. Quality of Chicken Meat. In: Animal Husbandry and Nutrition. Banu Yucel & Turgay Taskin (Eds). Intech. Pp 63-94.

Lee MT, LP Lai, WC Lin, JY Ciou, SC Chang, B Yu and TT Lee. 2017. Improving nutrition utilization and meat quality of broiler chickens through solid-state fermentation of agricultural by-products by Aureobasidium pullulans. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science. 19(4):645-654.

Marangoni F, G Corsello, C Cricelli, N Ferrara, A Ghiselli, L Lucchin and A Poli. 2015. Role of poultry meat in a balanced diet aimed at maintaining health and wellbeing: an Italian consensus document. Food & Nutrition Research. 59(1):27606.

Marchioro AA, AO Mallmann, A Diel, P Dilkin, RH Rauber, FJH Blazquez, MGA Oliveira and CA Mallmann. 2013. Effects of Aflatoxins on Performance and Exocrine Pancreas of Broiler Chickens. American Association of Avian Pathologists. 57(2):280–284.

Missotten JA, J Michiels, N Dierick, A Ovyn, A Akbarian and S De Smet. 2013. Effect of fermented moist feed on performance, gut bacteria and gut histo-morphology in broilers. Journal of British Poultry Science. 54(5):627-634.

Morrison D, D Ledoux, L Chester and C Samuels. 2017. A limited survey of aflatoxins in poultry feed and feed ingredients in Guyana. Veterinary Sciences. 4(4):1-7.

Mukandungutse BI, JK Tuitoek, AM King’ori and MA Obonyo. 2019. The effect of fermentation with and without Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the levels of aflatoxin in maize. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 31(11):172.

Murugesan GR, DR Ledoux, K Naehrer, F Berthiller, TJ Applegate, B Grenier, TD Phillips and G Schatzmayr. 2015. Prevalence and effects of mycotoxins on poultry health and performance, and recent development in mycotoxin counteracting strategies. Poultry Science. 94(6):1298-1315.

Naji SA, IFB Al-Zamili, SA Hasan and JKM Al-Gharawi. 2016. The Effects of Fermented Feed on Broiler Production and Intestinal Morphology. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science. 39(4):597-607.

Negash D. 2018. A review of aflatoxin: occurrence, prevention, and gaps in both food and feed safety. Nutritional Health and Food Engineering. 8(2):190-197.

NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Nutrient Requirement of Poultry, 9th Revised Edition, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Riovanto R, M De Marchi, M Cassandro and M Penasa. 2012. Use of near infrared transmittance spectroscopy to predict fatty acid composition of chicken meat. Food Chemistry. 134(4):2459-2464.

Salem R, N El-Habashi, SE Fadl, OA Sakr and ZI Elbialy. 2018. Effect of probiotic supplement on aflatoxicosis and gene expression in the liver of broiler chicken. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 60:118-127.

Sobrane Filho ST, OM Junqueira, ACD Laurentiz, RDS Filardi, MDS Rubio, KF Duarte, and RDSD Laurentiz. 2016. Effects of mycotoxin adsorbents in aflatoxin B1-and fumonisin B1-contaminated broiler diet on performance and blood metabolite. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 45(5):250-256.

Sugiharto S and S Ranjitkar. 2018. Recent advances in fermented feeds towards improved broiler chicken performance, gastrointestinal tract microecology and immune responses: A review. Animal Nutrition. 5(1):1-10.

Sugiharto S, C Lauridsen and BB Jensen. 2015. Gastrointestinal ecosystem and immunological responses in E. coli challenged pigs after weaning fed liquid diets containing whey permeate fermented with different lactic acid bacteria. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 207:278-282.

Syahidah HW, K Selvaneswary, M Normah, IM Syafiq and D Suhaimi. 2017. Survey on occurrence of aflatoxins in chicken feeds from Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research. 8(1):103-112.

Valchev I, V Marutsova, I Zarkov, A Ganchev and Y Nikolov. 2017. Effects of aflatoxin B1 alone or co-administered with Mycotox NG on performance and humoral immunity of turkey broilers. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 20(1).

Yunus AW, E Razzazi-Fazeli and J Bohm. 2011. Aflatoxin B1 in affecting broiler’s performance, immunity, and gastrointestinal tract: A review of history and contemporary issues. Toxins. 3(6):566-590.

Zaki MM, SA El-Midany, HM Shaheen and L Rizzi. 2012. Mycotoxins in animals: Occurrence, effects, prevention and management. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. 4(1):13-28.

Published
2020-09-17
How to Cite
Beatrice Mukandungutse, I., Tuitoek, J. K., King’ori, A. M., & Obonyo, M. A. (2020). The Effect of Fermented Aflatoxins Contaminated Feed on Digestibility and Performance of Broiler Chickens. ANIMAL PRODUCTION, 22(1), 55-60. https://doi.org/10.20884/1.jap.2020.22.1.3
Section
Articles