On Farm Trial of Prostaglandin Based Estrus Synchronization Protocols in Selected Milk-shed Areas of Amhara Region, Ethiopia
The present study was conducted from 2019 to 2020 in the Debre Birhan area of the Amhara region, Ethiopia, aiming to evaluate the effect of single-dose prostaglandin hormone in dairy cows and heifers at the smallholder farmer level. A total of 458 dairy cows and heifers were treated with 2ml of Synchromate® hormone, and after 77.82±2.74 hours, 286 of which (62.4%) were reported to have manifested estrus signs. Insemination was performed to 215 animals, 71 animals were not inseminated (the time for AI was passed when checked by rectal palpation) because of later reports by farmers after the cessation of estrus periods. Of the 215 animals that were inseminated, 82 (38.1%) conceived, and from the 82 animals that conceived, 79 (96.3%) gave birth. Estrus response and conception rate have not shown a significant difference between parity and body condition scores. However, treatment to estrus interval has been found to be significantly (p<0.05) influenced by parity, cows had shorter intervals than the heifers. This study indicated that there were problems in the detection and reporting of estrus response by the smallholder farmers, hence, requiring continuous training on dairy cow management.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published before or is under consideration for publication elsewhere (except in the form of an abstract). When the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.
AGP, 2013. Agricultural Growth Project - Livestock Market Development. Value Chain Analysis for Meat and Live Animals, Hides, Skins and Leather and Dairy, Ethiopia.
Azage T, G Berhanu and D Hoekstra. 2010. Livestock input supply and service provision in Ethiopia. Challenges and opportunities for market-oriented development. IPMS of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 20, ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya, p. 48.
Azage, T, E Awete, T Asrat and H Dirk. 2012. Technological options and Approaches to improve smallholder access to desirable animal genetic martial for Dairy development: for dairy development: IPMS experience with synchronization and mass insemination. Tropentag, September, 19-21, Göttingen. WWW.ipms-ethiopia.org.
Azage, T. 2018. Why Ethiopia’s dairy industry can’t meet growing demand for milk. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Bainesagn, W. 2015. Assessment of Breeding Practices and Evaluation of Estrus Synchronization and Mass Insemination Technique in Dairy Cattle in West Shoa Zone. Thesis. Haramaya University. Ethiopia.
Bekana, M, A Gizachew and F Regassa. 2005. Reproduction performances of Fogera heifers treated with prostaglandin F2α for synchronizations of estrus. Tropical Animal Health and production. Vol 37: 373-379.
Bo, GA, PS Baruselli and MF Martı́nez. 2003. Pattern and manipulation of follicular development in Bos indicus cattle. Animal Reproduction Science. Vol 78(307).
Bridges, PJ and JE Fortune. 2003. Characteristics of developing prolonged dominant follicles in cattle. Domestic Animal Endocrinology. Vol 25 (199).
CSA. 2019. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Central Statistical Agency, Agricultural Sample Survey, Volume II, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Debir, L. 2016. Assessment of breeding practice and evaluation of estrus synchronization of dairy cattle in sidama zone, southern Ethiopia. Thesis. Hawassa University. Ethiopia
Destalem, G. 2015. Breeding practice and estrus synchronization evaluation of dairy cattle in central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Thesis. Jimma University. Ethiopia.
Galina, CS and A Orihuela. 2007. The detection of estrus in cattle raised under tropical conditions: What we know and what we need to know. Hormones and Behavior. Vol 52 (32).
Girmay, G, G Berihanu, and W Bahlibi. 2015. The Effect of One-shot Prostaglandin on Estrus synchronization of Local and Holstein Fresian Cattle in and around Wukro-kilte Awulaelo District, Northern Ethiopia. Journal of Biology Agricultural and Healthcare. Vol 5(7).
Gupta, J, A Laxmi, O Vir Singh and Ashutosh. 2008. A comparative study on evaluation of three synchronization protocols at field level in both cattle and buffaloes. Vol 20 (175).
Hamid, J. 2012. Study on factors affecting the success of artificial insemination program in cattle, Siltie zone. Thesis. Addis Ababa University College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture. Ethiopia.
Ibrahim, MNM. 2015. Body condition scoring of dairy cattle. ILRI Factsheet 9, Pakistan, 1-2.
Khatun, MA, FY Bari, M Alam, MR Ali and PK Sarkar. 2014. Post AI Conception Rate in Cattle at Rajarhat, Kurigram, Bangladesh. Wayamba Journal of Animal Science. Pages: 845-854.
Nuraddis, I, H Reta, M Abidu. 2015. Assessment of Problems Associated with Artificial Insemination Service in Selected Districts of Jimma Zone. Journal of Reproductive Infertility. Vol 5: 37-44.
Rick, R and D Gene. 2013. Synchronizing Estrus in Beef Cattle. University of Nebraska-Lincoln Lincoln, NE.
Tadesse, B. 2002. Reproductive performance of zebu (fogera) breed in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Thesis presented to faculty of veterinary of medicine. Addis Ababa University. Debre Zeit. Ethiopia.
Tegegn, F and A Zelalem. 2017. Evaluation of oestrus synchronization and mass artificial insemination service of dairy cattle in Mizan Aman area, Bench Maji zone, South West Ethiopia. Department of Animal Science. Mizan-Tepi University. Ethiopia. International Journal of Livestock Production. Vol 8(1): 1-4.
Tegegne, A, D Hoekstra, B Gebremedhin, and S Gizaw. 2016. History and experiences of hormonal oestrus synchronization and mass insemination of cattle for improved genetics in Ethiopia: From science to developmental impact. LIVES Working Paper 16. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya.
Tewodros, A, M Wondifraw, M Guadie, and A Zewdu. 2015. Study on the Conception Rate of Dairy Cows Artificially Inseminated During Natural Heat and by Synchronization in Fogera Woreda, North-West of Ethiopia. African Journal of Basic and Applied Science. Vol 7(5): 291-297.
Woldu, T, Y Giorgis, A Haile. 2011. Factors affecting conception rate in artificially inseminated cattle under farmers’ condition in Ethiopia. J Anim Bio. Vol 5: 334-338.
Yeshimebet, C, Z Tesfaye, G Hulunim, G Lina, K Getachew, D Chekol, B Amare, A Ayele, and T Yishak. 2017. Evaluation of Two Estrus Synchronization Protocols in Dairy Cattle at North Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. Animal Production. Vol: 19(2): 93-100.