Policies to Increase Calves Production in East Nusa Tenggara as a National Production Center


Ulrikus Romsen Lole
Arnoldus Keban


The determinant factors of the growth of calf cattle production in NTT Province (both technical/technological, economic, socio-cultural, investment, and related institutions) have not been specifically identified and measured. This is very important for the purpose of formulating and implementing related policies. The objectives of this study were to analyze the main factors affecting the level of calf production, and to formulate policy interventions to increase calf production. A research survey was carried out on parties related to the planning and development of cattle business. The quantitative approach is in the form of regression analysis of time series data. The economic phenomenon of calf production in Kupang Regency has been simplified into a mathematical model (response function). The result reported that the estimated value of the parameters in the total calf production equation model in NTT was: TPRAS= – 20434.1 + 0.2262 LTTSIP* – 0.0032 TLPRAns + 0.2147 TLLTP* + 0.1036 TPTRU* + 0.1877 TRKUT** + 0.2067TRDIB** + 0.1057 TRDVT** + 0.3647 LTPRAS* + 811.7645 TREND**. In conclusionl, the increased production of calves was dependent on the increase in support for the main production factors [number of productive cows, number of farmers, amount of feed, and amount of cement/vaccine] adequatly. Policy investment (through interest rates and realization farming loans), policy of productive cows control (through postponement of slaughter and the provision cash incentives), and policy of technology support (through realization AI doses of semen and livestock vaccines) significantly affect to production of calves.


How to Cite
Lole, U. R., & Keban, A. (2020). Policies to Increase Calves Production in East Nusa Tenggara as a National Production Center. ANIMAL PRODUCTION, 22(2), 98-104. https://doi.org/10.20884/1.jap.2020.22.2.11


Ajetomobi, J.O. 2010. Supply response, risk and institutional change in Nigerian Agriculture. African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) Research Paper 197.
Bunmee, T., N. Chaiwang, C. Kaewkot and S. Jaturasitha. 2018. Current situation and future prospects for beef production in Thailand ‒ A review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences (AJAS) 2017, 31(7): 968–975.
Devendra, C. 2007. Perspectives on animal production systems in Asia. Lives. Sci. 106:118.
Dunn, W.N. 2012. Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction. Second Edition (In Indonesian, Editor: Darwin M). Yogyakarta: UGM Press.
Etwire, P.M., W. Dogbe, A.N. Wiredu, E. Martey, E. Etwire, R.K. Owusu and E. Wahaga. 2013. Factors influencing farmer’s participation in agricultural projects: The case of the agricultural value chain mentorship project in the Northern Region of Ghana. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 4(10):3643.
Gosalamang, D.S., A. Belete, J.J. Hlongwane and M. Masuku. 2012. Supply response of beef farmers in Botswana: a nerlovian partial adjustment model approach. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 7:4383-4389.
Guntoro, B., A.F. Prasetyo and E. Sulastri. 2016. Cattle farmers’ participation in rural development programs in Bantul Yogyakarta. Animal Production 18(3):181192.
Guntoro, B. and R. Priyadi. 2012. Motivation and performance of beef cattle small-holders farmer in Central Java Indonesia. Research Journal of Animal Sciences 6(4):8589.
Gupta V., P.K. Rai and K.S. Risam. 2012. Integrated crop-livestock farming system: A strategy for resource conservation and environmental sustainability. Indian Res. J. Extension Education Special Issue II: 4954.
Han, X.P., B. Hubbert, M.E. Hubbert and C.D. Reinhardt. 2016. Overview of the beef cattle industry in China: the widening deficit between demand and output in a vicious circle. J. Fisheries Livest. Prod., 4: 190.
Harmini, R.W., Asmarantaka, and J Atmakusuma. 2011. Dynamic model of national beef sufficiency system. J. of Develop. Econ. 12:128-146.
Hilimire, K. 2011. Integrated crop/livestock agriculture in the United States: A review. J. Sustainable Agric. 35:376–393.
Ibragimov, A., F.M. Arshad, B.K. Bala, N.L. Bach and S. Mohammadi. 2016. Management of beef cattle production in Malaysia: a step forward to sustainability. Am. J. Appl. Sci., 13(9):976–983.
Ilham, N. 2010. Socio-economic analysis and strategies for achieving self-sufficiency in meat in 2010. Agricultural Policy Analysis 4(2):131−145.
Isyanto, A.Y. and S. Iwan. 2016. Factors influencing population of beef cattle in Ciamis Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia. J. Econ. Sustain. Develop. 7(22):33–38.
Kemi, A.O. 2016. Economic impact of livestock production on the society: A case study of Ikare Akoko Ondo State. IOSR J. Agric. Veteri. Sci., 9(12):77–80.
Khan, N. and M.D.A. Iqubal. 2010. Livestock revolution and its impacts on the sustainability of marginal and small farmers in India: A case study. J. Geography 5(2):95108.
Khan, S. 2017. Study of gestation period, calving interval and birth weight of achai cattle at livestock research and development station Dir Lower, Pakistan. Biol. Agric. Health-care, 7(9): 12–15.
Larsson, B. and B. Berglund. 2008, Reproductive performance in PC with extended calving interval. Reprod. Domes. Anim., 35(6): 277–279.
Lake, P.R.M.T., A. Kusumawati and S. Budiharta. 2010. Risk factors for bovine brucellosis at the farm level in Belu District, East Nusa Tenggara Province. J. Sains Vet. 28(1):18.
Lole U.R. 2012. The impact of the interinsular quota trading policy on cattle on the welfare of farmers in East Nusa Tenggara. Research Loan of National Strategic [research report]. Bogor: SPS IPB.
Lole, U.R., S. Hartoyo, Kuntjoro and I.W. Rusastra. 2013. Analysis of regional distribution capacity and priorities for improving beef cattle population in East Nusa Tenggara Province. Media Peternakan, 36(1):70–78.
Musemwa, L., A. Mushunje, M. Chimoyo and C. Mapiye. 2010. Low cattle market off-take rates in communal production systems of South Africa: cause and mitigation strategies. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (12):209226.
NTT Provincial Livestock Office. 2018. Livestock Statistic of NTT. Kupang: NTT Livestock Office.
Nxumalo, S. and O.I. Oladele. 2013. Factors affecting farmers’ participation in agricultural programme in Zululand District, Kwazulu Natal Province, South Africa”. Journal of Social Science 34(1):8388.
Olmo, L., K. Ashley, J.R. Young, S. Suon, P.C. Thomson, P.A. Windsor and R.D. Bush. 2016. Improving smallholder cattle reproductive efficiency in Cambodia to address expanding regional beef demand. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 49(1): 163–172.
Paly, M.B. 2019. Calving interval of productive pc to increase cattle population growth: A case study at South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Acta Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendelianae Brun; 67:1325-1333.
Rahardjo, M. and Suroyo. 2013. Beef cattle integration on dry-land farming in Sragen Central-Java Indonesia: Improvements of economic and environmental carrying capacity aspects. Animal Production 15(2):135143.
Rasminati, N., S. Utomo and D.A. Riyadi. 2010. Cutting productive female cattle in slaughter-houses in Yogyakarta Special Region. Sains Peternakan, 7(1):20–24.
Siswijono, S.B., V.M.A. Nurgiartiningsih and Hermanto. 2014. Development of institutional models for Madura cattle conservation. J. of Anim. Sci. 24: 3338.
Siswoyo, H., D.J. Setyono and A.M. Fuah. 2013. Institutional analysis and its role farmer’ income in the Simpay Tampomas Farmer Group, Sumedang Regency, West Java Province. J. of Anim. Husb. Prod. And Tech. 1(3):172–178.
Sitepu, R.K. and B.M. Sinaga. 2006. Aplication Model of Econometrics: Estimation, Simulation and Prediction Using SAS Programe. Bogor: Study Program in Agricultural Economics, Graduate School of Bogor Agricultural University.
Sodiq, A. 2011. Analysis of the region of business for breeding and fattening beef cattle based on rural local resources for the national program for the acceleration of achieving beef self-sufficiency. Agripet 11(1):22−28.
Soejosopoetro, B. 2011. The study of productive cow slaughtering at slaughterhouse of Malang. J. Tropic. Anim. 12(1):22–26.
Suardana, I.W., I.M. Sukada, I.K. Suada and D.A. Widiasih. 2013. The analysis of amount and various age of productive female Bali cattle slaughtered at abbatoirs. J. Sain Vet. 31(1):43–48.
Wirdahayati, R.B. 2010. Application of technology in an effort to increase beef cattle productivity in East Nusa Tenggara. Wartazoa 20(1):1220. http://repository.pertanian.go.id/ handle/123456789/4802
Yusuf and J. Nulik. 2009. Institutional marketing of beef cattle in West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara. J. of Agric. Tech. Study and Develop. 11(2):132144.
Zhu, Y. and J. Yang. 2012. Effects of farmers' motivation on their participation in publicly funding training programs in Sichuan Province, China. J. of Agric. Sci. 4(10):687.

Most read articles by the same author(s)