Effect of Eucalyptus Leaves Supplementation in Ration on Lactating Buffaloes Performance

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.main##

Said Ahmed Mahmoud
Nabil Mohamed Eweedah
Hamed Mohamed Gaafar
Mostafa Mohamed El-Nahrawy
Sherif Ibrahim Al-Ajawi

Abstract

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of fresh and dry eucalyptus leaves on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation activity, blood serum biochemical, milk yield and composition, feed conversion and economic efficiency of lactating buffaloes. Twenty lactating multiparous Egyptian buffaloes in 3rd and 5th lactation seasons and weighed 550 kg on average were used in complete randomized design after 8 weeks of calving (peak period) and assigned into five similar groups of four buffaloes each according to milk yield and live body weight. Animals were individually fed on a basal ration (BR) consisted of 40% concentrate feed mixture (CFM), 30% fresh berseem (FB) and 30% rice straw (RS). The first group was un supplemented and served as a control group (G1). Those in the second and third groups were supplemented with 50 and 100 g of fresh eucalyptus leaves per head per day for low level (G2) and high level (G3). Animals in the fourth and fifth groups were supplemented with 15 and 30 g of dry eucalyptus leaves per head per day for low level (G4) and high level (G5). G3 recorded significantly the highest digestibility coefficients of all nutrients and feeding values followed by G2, G5 and G4, whereas control one (G1) had the lowest values. Ruminal pH value tended to decreased with Eucalyptus leaves additive. Group 3 showed significantly the highest TVFA’s and the lowest NH3-N concentration followed by G2, G5 and G4, while G1 had the opposite trend. Moreover, G3 revealed significantly the highest concentrations of total protein and globulin and the lowest urea, urea-N and creatinine and activity of SGOT and SGPT enzymes in blood serum followed by G2, G5 and G4, while G1 had reverse values. However, serum albumin concentration was nearly similar for the different groups. Group 3 recorded significantly the highest feed intake (DM, TDN and DCP), yield of actual milk and 7% FCM, milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, SNF, TS and ash) and milk constituents yield followed by G2, G5 and G4, while G1 had the lowest values. Also, G3 recorded significantly the lowest amounts of DM, TDN and DCP per 1 kg 7% FCM followed by G2, G5 and G4, while G1 had the highest amounts. At the same time, G3 recorded significantly the highest values of feed cost, output of 7% FCM yield, net revenue and economic efficiency and the lowest feed cost per kg 7% FCM followed by G2, G5 and G4, while G1 had the opposite values. In conclusion, addition of fresh eucalyptus leaves at the level of 100 g/head/day recorded the best improvements in feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation activity, some blood serum biochemical, milk yield and composition, feed conversion and economic efficiency of lactating buffaloes.  

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.details##

How to Cite
Mahmoud, S. A., Eweedah, N. M., Gaafar, H. M., El-Nahrawy, M. M., & Al-Ajawi, S. I. (2021). Effect of Eucalyptus Leaves Supplementation in Ration on Lactating Buffaloes Performance. ANIMAL PRODUCTION, 23(3), 160-170. https://doi.org/10.20884/1.jap.2021.23.3.101

References

Aboul-Fotouh, G.E., S.M. Allam, E. Shehata and S.N. Abd-El-Azeem. 1999. Effect of some medicinal plants as feed additives on performance of growing sheep. Egyptian J. Nutrition and Feeds. 2(2): 7987.
Aboul-Fotouh, G.E., S.M. Allam, E. Shehata, and S.N. Abd-El-Azeem. 2000. Effect of some medicinal plants as feed additives on milk production and composition of lactating buffaloes. Egyptian J. Nutrition and Feeds. 3(1): 31-42.
Anantasook, N. and M. Wanapat. 2012. Influence of rain tree pod meal supplementation on rice straw based diets using in vitro gas fermentation technique. Asian‐Australasian J. Anim. Sci. 25: 325– 334.
AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
Arefaine, H. and M. Kashwa. 2105. A review on strategies for sustainable buffalo milk production in Egypt. J. Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 5(9): 63-67.
Ashraf, M., Q. Ali, F. Anwar and A. Hussain. 2010. Composition of leaf essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 22(3): 1779-1786.
Atmani-Merabet, Gh., A. Belkhiri, M.A. Dems, A. Lalaouna, Z. Khalfaoui and B. Mosbah. 2018. Chemical composition, toxicity, and acaricidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil from Algeria. Curr. Issues Pharm. Med. Sci. 31(2): 89-93.
Bergman, E.N. 1990. Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species. Physiol. Rev. 70(2): 567-90.
Duncan, D.B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 11:1-42.
Elaissi, A., Z. Rouis, S. Mabrouk, K. Bel Haj Salah, M. Aouni, M. Larbi Khouja, F. Farhat, R. Chemli and F. Harzallah-Skhiri. 2012. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from fifteen Eucalyptus species growing in the Korbous and Jbel Abderrahman Arboreta (North East Tunisia). Molecules. 17(30): 44–57.
El-Ashry, M.A, N.E. El-Bordeny, H.M. Khattab and H.M. El-Sayed. 2006. Effect of dietary supplemented with medicinal herbs on nutrient digestibility and some blood metabolites of buffalo calves. Egyptian J. of Nutrition and Feeds. 9(2): 179-191.
El-Bordeny, N.E. 2011. Performance of calves fed ration containing Eucalyptus globules leaves. Egyptian J. of Nutrition and Feeds. 13(1): 13-22.
El-Bordeny, N.E.; M.A. El-Ashry; H.M. Khattab and H.M. El-Sayed (2005). Effect of some medicinal herbs on buffalo calves performance from first week old till weaning. Egyptian J. of Nutrition and feeds, 8(1) special issue: 155-166.
El-Bordeny, N.E., M.A. El-Ashry and G. Hekal. 2006. Effect of Eucalyptus leaves supplementation on beef calf performance. EAAP 56th Annual Meeting, Antalya, Turkey, 17-20 September (Abstract).
FAO. 2015. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The State of Food and Agriculture. Data Base. Faostat.fao.org.
Hassan, M.S.H., M.H. El Sanhoury, W.A.H. Ali and A.M.H. Ahmed. 2011. Effect of using eucalyptus leaves as natural additives on productive, physiological, immunological and histological performance of laying Japanese quail. Egypt. Poult. Sci. 31: 305–329.
IBM SPSS Statistics. 2014. Statistical package for the social sciences, Release 22, SPSS INC, Chicago, USA.
Khattab, A.R., A.A. Saleh and F.A. El Sayed. 2018. Effect of feeding the medicinal herb, chamomile flower, on productive performance of Frafra ewes and their born lambs. Egyptian J. Sheep & Goat Sci. 13(2): 38-46.
Kolver, E.S. and M.J. de Veth. 2002. Prediction of Ruminal pH from Pasture-Based Diets. J. Dairy Sci. 85: 1255-1266.
Lunsin, R., M. Wanapat, C. Yuangklang and P. Rowlinson. 2012. Effect of rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Livest. Sci. 145: 167-173.
Manh, N.S., M. Wanapat, S. Uriyapongson, P. Khejornsart and V. Chanthakhoun. 2012. Effect of eucalyptus (Camaldulensis) leaf meal powder on rumen fermentation characteristics in cattle fed on rice straw. African J. Agric. Res. 7(13): 1997-2003.
Mapato, C., M. Wanapat and A. Cherdthong. 2010. Effects of urea treatment of straw and dietary level of vegetable oil on lactating dairy cows. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 42:1635–1642.
Marai, I.F.M. and A.A.M. Habeeb. 2010. Buffalo's biological functions as affected by heat stress - A review. Livestock Sci. 127(2): 89-109.
McDonald, P., A.M. Edwards, G.F.D. Greenhalagh and C.A. Morgan. 1995. Animal nutrition 5th Ed., copyright licensing LTD., London.
McDonald, P., R.A. Edwards, J.F.D. Greenhalgh and C.A. Morgan. 2002. Animal Nutrition. 6th edition. Pearson, Prentice Hall, UK.
Morsy, T.A., A.E. Kholif, O.H. Matloup, A. Abu Elella, U.Y. Anele and J.S. Caton. 2018. Mustard and cumin seeds improve feed utilisation, milk production and milk fatty acids of Damascus goats. J. Dairy Res. 85: 142-151.
Mudgal, V.D. 1988. Energy and protein requirements for Dairy buffaloes. II World Buffalo Congress, New Delhi, India, December. A compendium of latest research information based on Indian studies, pp. 130-141.
Oba, M. and M.S. Allen. 2003a. Effects of corn grain conservation method on feeding behavior and productivity of lactating dairy cows at two dietary starch concentrations. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 174–183.
Oba, M. and M.S. Allen. 2003b. Effects of diet fermentability on efficiency of microbial nitrogen production in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 195–207.
Oussalah, M., S. Caillet, L. Saucier and M. Lacroix. 2007. Inhibitory effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth of four pathogenic bacteria: E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella
Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. Food Control. 18: 414–420.
Raafat, N.A. and M. S. Saleh. 1962. Two formulas for the conversion of cow's and buffalo's milk of different fat percentage into milk of standard fat percentage, proceeding of the 1st Anim. Prod. Conference at Minia, pp. 203.
Salem, A.Y., H.Gh. El–Awady, M.A. Tag EL-Dein and Dina A. Eisa. 2019. Effect of supplementation of aromatic plants oils on immunity, udder health and milk production of Friesian cows. Slov. Vet. Res. 56 (Suppl 22): 523–530.
Satter, L.D. and L.L. Slyter. 2007. Effect of ammonia concentration on rumen microbial protein production in vitro. British J. Nutr. 32(02): 199.
Schneider, B.H. and W.P. Flatt. 1975. The evaluation of feeds through digestibility experiments. Univ. of Georgia Press, Athens, USA, pp. 161-167.
Shwerab, A.M., M.S. Khalel, A.A. Hassan, Amany A. Khayyal and M.H. Yacout. 2014. The act of eucalyptus leaves as a source of essential oils on dairy cows performance. Egyptian J. Nutrition and Feeds. 17 (2): 207-224.
Soltan, M.A. 2009. Effect of essential oils supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, health condition of Holstein male calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Pakistan j. Nutr. 8(5): 642-652.
Thao, N.P., M.I. Khan, N.B. Thu, X.L. Hoang, M. Asgher, N.A. Khan and L.S. Tran. 2015. Role of ethylene and its cross talk with other signaling molecules in plant responses to heavy metal stress. Plant Physiol. 169(1): 73-84.
UCDAVIS. 2001. Clinical Chemistry Reference Intervals Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital University of California, Davis, USA.
Van Keulen, J. and B.A. Young. 1977. Evaluation of acid insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies J. Anim. Sci. 44(2): 282-287.
Van Soest, P.J. 1994. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd Edition, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp. 476.
Wanapat, M. and O. Pimpa. 1999. Effect of ruminal NH3-N levels on ruminal fermentation, purine derivatives, digestibility and rice straw intake in swamp buffaloes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12: 904–907.
Warner, E. 1964. Production of volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Methods of measurements. Nutr. Abs. Rev. 34: 339-352.